Legal Hitory Review vol.44 (1994)
Summaries of Articles

Hikiainin (ˆĝ‡l) in the early Meiji period
– From judgments of Maebashi-Shishinsaibansho (court of first instance) –

by Eiichi TAKIKAWA

“Civil procedure” (1885), showed to Mr. Kirkwood, said, Hikiainin (ˆĝ‡l) is a intervener in civil process. I found several judgments of Maebashi-Shishinsaibansho (court of first instance), from 1877 to 1882, now preserved by Maebashi-district court gave decisions against or in favor of Hikiainin as interveners. This usual practice was not derived from French law, but from the precedent of court in Tokugawa era.

This paper analyzes the grounds of the above-mentioned derivation, and explains legal character of Hikiainin in the early Meiji period.

A Study on eKenpo Bikou' (draft of the constitutional law) written by G. E. Boissonade

by Yuko YANO

Today, many studies about the theory of law of G. E. Boissonade have accumulated, especially in the field of the criminal law and the civil law. But very few remarks have been made on his work during his stay in Japan in the field of the constitutional law.

In this article, I try to draw a brief picture of his idea about the constitutional law by analyzing his uncompleted but systematic draft eKenpo Bikou' which has been kept in eOdagiri documents collection' in Keio university.

eKenpo Bikou' consists of two chapters, and in the first chapter he describes how the rights of people have been secured by law in France. There, he enumerates <la liberté de la personne; l'inviolabilitédu domicile; la liberté de religion; la liberté de l'industrie; la liberté et l'inviolabilitédes propriétés; le droit de petition; le droit de réunion et d'association; le droit à la juridiction des juges naturels> etc...

According to Boissonade, most of these rights should be also secured for Japanese people, which means the new constitutional law must be based on liberalism and individualism.

In the second chapter, he describes the structure of the state. He professed, at the beginning of the chapter, the aim of the new constitution: eThe most important aim of this new constitution is to limit the power of the Emperor'. Therefore how he planned <the Diet elected by the people> is of important value. But unfortunately eKenpo Bikou' is not completed, and we can not see his real idea of the Diet. But we still have suggestive comments from eKenporon' made by Boissonade in April 1875, just before eKenpo Bikou' was written.

Supplementing its lack with eKenporon' and other comments about the constitutional law left by Boissonade, we could touch what he had then (around 1875) in mind about estructure of the Japanese state' and erights of Japanese people'.

I wish this article will be of some help for the study of Boissonade, on his theory of the constitutional law.

A Reconsideration of the System of Regional Law in the Later Medieval Ages

The Case of the Ikki Clique of Local Feudal Lords

by Yasuhiro NISHIMURA

“Kokujin Ikki” is typically defined as the union of local lords into a region of independent feudal authority. Established primarily to resist outside influences, the Kokujin-Ikki resembles a federation without internal hierarchy.

This paper examines the Shimo-Matsurato-Ikki, a subregion within@the larger Matsurato-Ikki. According to the contracts under which the larger Matsurato-Ikki was formed, the Matsurato region can be subdivided into three Ikki levels: the Shimo-Matsura or the Kami-Matsura level, the Goto level, and the Ura (or, Ura-no-uchi) level. Each smaller Ikki, in turn, functioned in much the same way as the larger Matsurato-Ikki.

A consideration of conflict resolution within the Shimo-Matsurato Ikki leads to some important conclusions about the structure of the Ikki system. The first point is that the three levels of the Matsurato Ikki cannot be distinguished based solely upon their functions. Secondly, it should be noted that dispute resolution, particularly within the Goto level, actually took place within the small Ikki that combined to form the Goto level. These small Ikki are typically united at the level of “Ura” or “Ura-no-uchi”.

From these observations about the interrelation of each Ikki level in the Shimo-Matsurato-Ikki, the traditional view of the Ikki system, based upon consideration of the Matsurato-Ikki alone, may be elaborated upon to some degree.

L'influence du bouddhisme sur la pensée du droit moderne au Japon
– Notamment à l'exemple d'une œuvre réalisée par Kakei Katsuhiko, “La philosophie bouddhique” –


La religion devrait donner à tout le monde l'art de garder la relation avec le droit. Mais certains doutent que le religion ne manque d'une neutralité dans la vie politique. En effet, dans l'histoire du droit moderne au Japon, la religion a été utilisée pour orienter le peuple vers l'idée nationaliste. “La philosophie bouddhique” écrite par Kakei Katsuhiko (1872-1961) en 1911 est un exemple. On dit que la théorie développée par lui dans ce livre est soutenue par la politique de renforcement économique et militaire du gouvernement de l'époque. Il décrit que des individus doivent être à la dévotion de l'Etat. Cette remarque montre l'aspect fanatique et agressive de sa théorie.

Mais, originellement, le bouddhisme est modéré et neutre. Masuda Fukutaro (1903-82), un disciple de Kakei, a essayé de pratiquer ce caractère pour résoudre des problèmes juridiques. il nous fait reconnaître l'importance d'être modeste ou bien de se comprendre mutuellement dans la vie quotidienne, avant de faire appel aux tribunaux pour réaliser son propre intérêt.

Cependant, sa philosophie n'est pas incompatible avec le nationalisme de son époque. Cette sympathie pour le nationalisme de son raisonnement faisait un obstacle jusqu'ici à la compréhension totale et juste de sa théorie. En plus, son emploi des mots philosophiques et son raisonnement juridique sont très compliqués. Sa théorie n' a pas attiré nos intentions.

Nous avons essayéde mettre en lumière, dans notre petit artide, les tentatives faites par deux philosophes de droit pour définir le rôle joué par le bouddhisme dans la vie juridique.

return to Contents

retun to Homepage